Deep Breathing Relaxation Techniques to Lowering Systolic Blood Pressure in the Elderly: Randomized Control Trial




deep breathing, hypertension, relaxation


Background: Continuous high blood pressure causes the heart to work extra hard, eventually this condition results in damage to the blood vessels of the heart, kidneys, brain, and eyes. Hypertension management is recommended to minimize pharmacological therapy with the aim of avoiding side effects. Non-pharmacological efforts that can be done in patients with hypertension are by controlling various aspects such as deep breathing techniques.

Purpose: This study aims to determine the effect of deep breathing relaxation techniques to reducing blood pressure in the elderly with hypertension. Quasy-experiment pre-post-test with control group was conducted on 108 elderlies with hypertension at a Puskesmas located in Subang with simple random sampling technique.

Methods: This study was conducted by providing deep breathing techniques to the elderly in the treatment group for 3 months. The statistical test used was the independent t test and chi-square.

Results: The deep breathing relaxation technique given at a dose of 15 minutes 3 times a day for 3 months has been shown to have an effect on reducing blood pressure in the elderly. Conclusion: Future research can conduct research on deep breathing by paying more attention to confounding variables such as stress, anxiety, and diet.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahern, R. L. (2017). Management of Hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 23(1).

Ahmadi, M., Amiri, M., Rezaeian, T., Abdollahi, I., Mansour Rezadoost, A., Sohrabi, M., Bakhshi, E., Author, C., & Abdollahi Assosiated Professor in Physiotherapy, I. (2021). Different Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Diaphragmatic Breathing on Lower Esophageal Sphincter Pressure and Quality of Life in Patients with Reflux: A Comparative Study. Middle East J Dig Dis, 13(1), 61–66.

Bundy, J. D., Mills, K. T., Chen, J., Li, C., Greenland, P., & He, J. (2018). Estimating the Association of the 2017 and 2014 Hypertension Guidelines With Cardiovascular Events and Deaths in US Adults An Analysis of National Data.

Cernes, R., & Zimlichman, R. (2017). Role of Paced Breathing for Treatment of Hypertensiontle. Current Hypertension Report, 6(19).

Dorans, K. S., Mills, K. T., Liu, Y., & He, J. (2018). Trends in Prevalence and Control of Hypertension According to the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline. Journal of the American Heart Association, 7(11).

Friedman, E. H., Bowden, & Jones, D. (2016). A Family Systems Nursing Approach for Families Following a Hypertension: Family Health Conversations. Journal of Family Nursing, 21(1).

Ghozali, I. (2014). Structural Equation Modeling Metode Alternatif dengan Partial Least Squares (PLS) (IV). Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

Guyton, & Hall. (2014). Hypertensions Diet Among Adult Patient. Journal of Hypertension, 31(2).

Hamasaki, H. (2020). Effects of Diaphragmatic Breathing on Health: A Narrative Review. Medicines.

Hassoun, P. M. (2021). Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. The New England Journal of Medicine, 25(385).

Health, M. of. (2018). Hasil Utama RISKESDAS 2018.

Kemenkes RI. (2018). Profil Kesehatan Indonesia Tahun 2018. In Ministry of Health Indonesia.

Kramer, H. J., Townsend, R. R., Griffin, K., Flynn, J. T., Weiner, D. E., Rocco, M. V, Choi, M. J., Weir, M. R., Chang, T. I., Agarwal, R., & Beddhu, S. (2019). KDOQI US Commentary on the 2017 ACC/AHA Hypertension Guideline. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 4(73).

Mitchell, A., Boucek, L., Hospers, H. J., Troxel, A., Nicholas, D. B., Patterson, J. G., Zikmund, W. G., & Ayala, R. A. (2016). Associations between social family support, psychological well? being, decision making, and family resilience among elderly with hypertension. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 3(1).

Nursalam, Yunitasari, E., & Ellina, A. D. (2022). Caring Berbasis Budaya (N. M. Adiutama (ed.); 1st ed.). Penerbit Lakeisha.

Sismulyanto. (2021). The Butterfly System of Nursing Community (N. M. Adiutama (ed.); 1st ed.). Malang: Ahlimedia Press.

Williams, B. (2018). Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, 2018. Journal of Hypertension, 36, 1953–2041.

Wittler, R. R. (2016). General Guideline of Atrial Hypertension. Heart and Lung The Journal of Acute and Critical Care, 22(1).

Yuliana, F., Adiutama, N. M., Hilmi, M. A., & Kurniawan, S. (2017). Treadmill Exercise for Increasing Walking Function After Stroke. 8 Th International Nursing Conference “Education, Practice And Research Development In Nursing,” 8, 183–188.




How to Cite

Novian Mahayu Adiutama, Hera Hijriani, Wawan Kurniawan, Wardah Fauziah, & Chiou - Feng Lin. (2022). Deep Breathing Relaxation Techniques to Lowering Systolic Blood Pressure in the Elderly: Randomized Control Trial. Journal Of Nursing Practice, 5(2), 271–280.